Wednesday, August 13, 2008
The Nut Case
The Nut Case
Nuts have long had a bad rap for being high in fat and calories, prompting weight-conscious runners to relegate nuts to their lists of forbidden foods. But as researchers take a closer look at walnuts, almonds, and other nuts, they're discovering these delicious, crunchy foods are packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. And that fat we were so wary of? Turns out it's good for our hearts — and our running.
That was the conclusion of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which released a qualified health claim in 2003 that states eating 1.5 ounces (about a handful) of nuts a day may reduce the risk of heart disease. That's because most of the fat in nuts is monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, which have been shown to lower levels of LDL (so-called "bad" cholesterol). "These fats are important for runners because they have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body," says Nancy Clark, R.D., "and can help repair tiny muscle injuries that create inflammation."
Not just any nut will do, however. The FDA includes six nuts in its qualified health claim, but a few others didn't make the cut, including Brazils, macadamias, and cashews. These nuts have relatively high levels of saturated fat, which over time can clog arteries and lead to heart disease. It's also a good idea to steer clear of prepackaged nut mixes, which are often coated in oils and salt. Instead, buy the following types of nuts raw and toast them in the oven or on the stove top to bring out their full, rich flavor.
Why: Walnuts are very rich in the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid ALA. This type of fatty acid isn't as effective as the kind found in fish, but a recent study indicates that ALA decreases inflammation that can damage arteries and may help reduce the breakdown of bone. Studies have also shown that walnuts can increase levels of HDL (known as good cholesterol) while lowering LDL.
How: Add walnut oil to salad dressing or use crushed walnuts to make a pesto sauce. Saute chopped walnuts and mix into taco meat for added crunch.
One ounce = 14 halves 185 calories, 4 g protein, 19 g fat
Why: A recent study found that the fiber in almonds actually blocks some of the nut fat from being digested and absorbed; participants also reported feeling satisfied after eating almonds, so they naturally compensated for the calories in the nuts by eating less during the day. One serving of almonds provides 35 percent of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant that may help protect against diseases such as Alzheimer's.
How: Add almonds to your breakfast cereal or yogurt. Mix into chicken salad, or indulge in a few dark-chocolate-covered almonds for a double boost of antioxidants.
One ounce = 23 nuts 163 calories, 6 g protein, 14 g fat
Why: Peanuts are technically not nuts — they're legumes and belong to the same family as beans and peas. They have a low glycemic index, which means they're digested slowly and help maintain a balanced blood-sugar level. Peanuts also contain resveratrol, the same phytochemical found in red wine thought to protect against heart disease.
How: Use peanut butter as a sauce base for a Thai noodle dish. Lightly brown peanuts in a skillet and add them to a stir-fry, or chop and bake them into muffins.
One ounce = 28 nuts 166 calories, 7 g protein, 14 g fat
Why: These tasty, little green nuts are high in lutein, an antioxidant typically found in dark leafy vegetables that's been shown to protect our eyes from macular degeneration. In one recent study, participants who ate 1.5 ounces of pistachios every day lowered their total cholesterol levels, while participants who ate three ounces a day saw an even more dramatic drop.
How: Sprinkle pistachios on shrimp or scallops (or on ice cream for dessert). Add crushed pistachios to meat loaf in place of some of the beef or bread crumbs.
One ounce = 49 pistachios 158 calories, 6 g protein, 13 g fat
Why: A 2004 study ranked the antioxidant capacity of 100 different foods and found that pecans are one of the top 15 sources of antioxidants. In another study, pecan antioxidants were shown to prevent LDL from building up in arteries and lowered total cholesterol levels. Compared with other nuts, pecans have one of the highest levels of phytosterols, a group of plant chemicals that may help protect against cardiovascular disease.
How: Add pecans to pancake batter, or coarsely chop and toss with pasta. Mix finely chopped pecans with bread crumbs and use as a coating on any broiled fish.
One ounce = 19 halves 196 calories, 3 g protein, 20 g fat
Why: Hazelnuts have the highest nut level of folate, a B vitamin known to reduce the risk of birth defects. Research indicates that it, along with other B vitamins, may also lower the risk of heart disease, cancer, and depression. Hazelnuts contain moderate levels of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, all of which can help lower blood pressure.
How: Add roasted hazelnuts to asparagus with lemon vinaigrette. They also go well with sweets, like granola yogurt parfaits.
One ounce = 21 nuts 178 calories, 4 g protein, 17 g fat
Just a Few
Eat nuts with saturated fat sparingly
One Ounce Equals: 6 nuts, 186 calories, 4 g protein, 19 g total fat
The Bad News: 4 g saturated fat per one-ounce serving
The Good News: Highest amount of selenium of any food; this mineral helps eliminate free radicals that can lead to cancer
One Ounce Equals: 11 nuts, 204 calories, 2 g protein, 21 g total fat
The Bad News: 3 g saturated fat and more calories than any other nut
The Good News: High in thiamine, a type of B vitamin that helps metabolize carbohydrates into energy
One Ounce Equals: 18 nuts, 157 calories, 5 g protein, 12 g total fat
The Bad News: 2.5 g saturated fat per one-ounce serving
The Good News: Rich in copper and magnesium, as well as zinc, which is important for a healthy immune system.
Labels: Diet Tips